Learning and manipulating the sounds in spoken words.​

“Before children learn to read print, they need to become aware of how the sounds in words work.  They must understand that words are made up of individual speech sounds, or phonemes.  A child’s skill in phonological awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty.” ​

– Reading Rockets​

Continuum of Skills:
Simple to Complex

Phoneme Addition

Phoneme Deletion

Phoneme Substitution Beginning Sound

Phoneme Substitution Middle Sound


Assessment is the process of asking questions about students’ reading skills and gathering information to answer those questions.​

-Stephanie Stollar​


Browse the 5 Critical Reading Components