Recognizing the relationship between written and spoken letters and sounds.

“If a child memorizes 10 words, ​the child can only read 10 words, but if a child learns 10 sounds, ​the child will be able to read 350 three-sound words, ​4320 four-sound words and ​21 650 five-sound words.”​

​​Martin Kozloff, 2002

Continuum of Skills: Simple to Complex

Letter-Sound Correspondence

CVC &VC Words

Blends & Digraphs

Complex Vowels

Complex Consonants

Multisyllable Words


Assessment is the process of asking questions about students’ reading skills and gathering information to answer those questions.​

-Stephanie Stollar​


Evidence-aligned resources to support classroom practice.

Tools 4 Reading

Sign up (free) to access West Virginia Phonics lessons on the Tools 4 Teachers page.

Browse the 5 Critical Reading Components